Pain-relieving drugs either naturally derived from poppy flowers or lab-made, semi-synthetic substitutes.


The Hydrocodone Structure


Hybridization and Circled Chiral atoms are shown in the structure


Hydrocodone, molecular model. Synthetic opioid derived from codeine and thebaine. Orally active narcotic analgesic and antitussive. Atoms are represented as spheres and are color-coded: carbon (grey), hydrogen (white), nitrogen (blue) and oxygen (red).


The Route Taken

Orally, Primarily tablets and capsules.

Destination in the Body

It need to be able to reach the stomach and into the digestive system for it to be absorbed thoroughly, then the chemicals need to be able to get the the nerve in order to inhibit the enzyme’s active site responsible of creating the feeling of pain.

Intermolecular Forces

Hydrogen Bonding

How it Functions At Destination

They work by attaching to particular sites in the brain called opioid receptors, which carry messages to the brain. The message the brain receives is changed, so that pain is no longer perceived as painful.

The Chemical Properties

“When cells in your body are injured or damaged, they release chemicals called prostaglandins…The special nerve endings that sense pain are very sensitive to this chemical. When prostaglandin is released, the nerve endings respond to it by picking up and transmitting the pain and injury messages through the nervous system to the brain…When you take a pain reliever…it keeps injured or damaged cells from making and releasing prostaglandin. When the cells don’t release this chemical, it means that the brain won’t get the pain message as quickly or clearly” (Mary L. Gavin, MD 2018).




Four to Six Hours



Excreted through Urinary Tract

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