Council of Europe Convention on preventing and combating violence against women and domestic violence (Ch. III-IV)
This convention was created by the Council of Europe, an international cooperative organization dedicated to maintaining human rights and international law amongst European states. Although its applications are far reaching, this source addresses violence prevention specifically within the confines of the European continent. Created in Istanbul in 2011, this official document delineates various methods to counter violence and focuses most heavily on preventing violence against women. The council provides a general overview of the various types of measures that can be taken to prevent gender-based violence, with dissemination of information – by way of education, training, and awareness-raising – among its highest priorities. However, it also stresses the significance of preventing further violence by providing assistance and resources for female victims.
Council of Europe. “Council of Europe Convention on preventing and combating violence against women and domestic violence.” Istanbul, 2011. Ch. III-IV. Web. 16 July 2014. <http://www.conventions.coe.int/Treaty/EN/Treaties/Html/210.htm>.
United States Strategy to Prevent and Respond to Gender-Based Violence Globally (p. 5-23)
One significant encumbrance to gender equality is gender-based violence, a barrier that continues to prevent women from contributing to the betterment of many societies. This violence hinders fully capable women from participating in the social, political, and economic aspects of life that affect their respective nations. Addressing this issue on the international scale, the U.S. Department of State and the U.S. Agency on International Development (USAID) describe the role the American government plays in preventing future violence. The source describes several past and ongoing efforts to combat this form of violence, and follows this information with main objectives as to how the U.S. can further contribute to promoting gender equality. A core component of the stated vision is establishing “an inter-agency working group (“Working Group”) to coordinate more effectively Federal agencies’ gender-based violence prevention and response activities.”
Department of State and USAID. “United States Strategy to Prevent and Respond to Gender-Based Violence Globally.” p. 5-23. Web. 8 July 2014. <http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/196468.pdf>.
UNFPA Strategy and Framework for Action to Addressing Gender-based Violence 2008-2011
Alleviating the wounds deeply ingrained by years of sexism and masculine norms proves difficult, as it is a challenge to change these fundamental traditions in favor of equality. Working within the timeframe of 2008 to 2011, the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), an agency that “expands the possibilities for women and young people to lead healthy and productive lives,” established several initiatives that target violence, specifically against women. The organization proposes addressing violence in several areas of inquiry, including the participation of men and boys in ending this violence, data collection, and underscoring the significance of women’s reproductive health. The UNFPA maintains its focus “on the most vulnerable and marginalized,” as these individuals warrant the most aid and deserve to be educated regarding matters of gender-based violence.
United Nations Population Fund. “UNFPA Strategy and Framework for Action to Addressing Gender-based Violence 2008-2011.” Web. 8 July 2014. <http://www.unfpa.org/sites/default/files/jahia-publications/documents/publications/2009/2009_add_gen_vio.pdf>.
Partnering with men to end gender-based violence (p. 73-82)
A fundamental step in challenging violence against women includes the involvement of the chief offenders: men. This source from the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) features several case studies from various nations in Eastern Europe and Central Asia. Each study outlines the challenges posed and the ways in which men can counter the growth of this violence. The report illustrates how the various countries reacted to its proposed goals, including the successes they found as the six participating nations raised awareness and began the process of gender mainstreaming. Others targeted in the study include police forces responding to reports of gender-based violence, institutions and groups working with victims, and the many individuals who remain indifferent towards the pressing issue. Notwithstanding the efforts made, gender-based violence still faces much adversity, much of it due to fundamental social norms concerning women, resistance, and overall apathy.
United Nations Population Fund. “Partnering with men to end gender-based violence.” p. 73-82. Web. 8 July 2014. <http://www.unfpa.org/sites/default/files/pub-pdf/partnering_with_men.pdf>.
Stopping the Violence Against Women: The Movement From Intervention to Prevention (p. 10-21)
Taking a unique approach to violence, Ms. Foundation for Women presents a multifaceted strategy that focuses on the shift from intervening – the simple addressing of existing and ongoing violence – to preventing this kind of violence from occurring in the first place. Violence is too often addressed after it has been carried out, bringing to light the need to address the cause of such violence. The foundation believes that the “prevention of gender violence requires examination of gender roles, […] begins with the prevention of child sexual abuse, and […] involves the development of community-centered strategies.” Furthermore, the foundation also provides grants for promising organizations that fulfill their goals, especially those that work with survivors and those that involve men as part of the solution.
Ms. Foundation for Women. “Stopping the Violence Against Women: The Movement From Intervention to Prevention.” p. 10-21. Web. 8 July 2014. <http://www.ncdsv.org/images/Ms_StoppingVAWTheMovementFromInterventionToPrevention _Aug2005.pdf>.
Sexual Violence and the Spectrum of Prevention: Towards a Community Solution
The authors, representing the National Sexual Violence Resource Center (NSVRC), present a unique strategy in an attempt to counter gender-based violence. The strategy involves a “Spectrum of Prevention,” composed of six levels ranging from improving an individual’s knowledge about the issue to enacting change on the national scale through legislation. Each level has a corresponding success story, as in “Level 3: Educating Providers” with SafePlace’s Expect Respect, a program that “promotes safe and healthy relationships through counseling and educational programs in K-12 schools.” As with other forms of violence prevention, the NSVRC identifies the importance of community involvement and organizations. Working with the youth, whether it is through sports, the classroom, or other youth-involved areas, creates a generation that sees women in an equal light which as a result prevents the creation of possible adult offenders. The publication advocates combining its various spectrum levels, so as to increase the efficacy of its cause by bringing it to a wider audience, greater than what a single level could accomplish.
Davis, Rachel, et al. “Sexual Violence and the Spectrum of Prevention: Towards a Community Solution.” 2006. Web. 8 July 2014. <http://www.cdph.ca.gov/HealthInfo/injviosaf/Documents/SV-Spectrum-VPU.pdf>.