Rule-Of-Law Tools For Post-Conflict States: Reparations Programmes
This source is “a practical tool to provide guidance on implementing reparations initiatives,” discussing topics such as the early beginnings of reparations, different forms of reparations, and the experience of various nations using reparations. Different forms of reparations may include cash distribution, health care, housing support, and symbolic measures. Although, as this document states, “nothing will restore a victim to the status quo ante after years of torture and illegal detention, or after the loss of a parent, a sibling, a spouse or a child,” reparations are a unique form of transitional justice. The publication explains, “reparations are explicitly and primarily carried out on behalf of victims.” Gender-sensitive strategies also aim to ensure “the participation of women in debates about the design of the programme.”
Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. “Rule-Of-Law Tools for Post-Conflict States: Reparations Programmes.” United Nations. 2008. Web. June 2014. <http://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Publications/ReparationsProgrammes.pdf>.
Basic Principles and Guidelines on the Right to a Remedy and Reparation for Victims of Gross Violations of International Human Rights Law and Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law
This resolution was adopted in 2005 by the General Assembly of the United Nations (UN). In section VII of the resolution, the UN states that a victim has the right to receive remedies for the “gross violations of international human rights law and serious violations of international humanitarian suffered.” Section IX of this resolution provides a detailed explanation of the various components of said “remedies.” Additionally, five “forms” of reparations – restitution, compensation, rehabilitation, satisfaction, and guarantees of non-repetition – are described thoroughly. Section IX of this UN document proves extremely helpful in understanding the definition of the complex topic of reparations.
United Nations General Assembly. “Basic Principles and Guidelines on the Right to a Remedy and Reparation for Victims of Gross Violations of International Human Rights Law and Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law.” United Nations. 16 December 2005. Web. June 2014. <http://www.ohchr.org/EN/ProfessionalInterest/Pages/RemedyAndReparation.aspx>.
Assistance to Victims of Sexual Violence
In 2005, The New York Times classified the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) as the “worst place on earth to be a woman.” In 2014, nine years later, the United Nations estimates “an average of 36 women and girls are raped every day” in the eastern provinces of the DRC, though a majority of experts “regard this statistic as deflated.” The Trust Fund for Victims (TFV) is an organization that was created in conjunction with the International Criminal Court to help and support victims, the people who “suffer most from these crimes, and who too often are forgotten.” According to TFV, consequences of this horrific violence include “psychological trauma, lost years of education, stigma, physical handicaps and much more.” TFV also reports that in post-conflict settings, sexual and other gender-based violence “can transition from ‘public’ violence to the more ‘private’ realm of domestic violence.” With an understanding that “the trauma associated with rape and other forms of sexual violence is deep and enduring,” TFV works to “promote survivor’s holistic rehabilitation and reintegration through responses that combine four types of assistance.” This assistance includes material support, psychological rehabilitation, community sensitization, and referrals to services.
“Assistance to Victims of Sexual Violence.” The Trust Fund for Victims. Web. June 2014. <http://www.trustfundforvictims.org/success-stories/assistance-victims-sexual-violence>.