Developing Policies to Prevent Injuries and Violence: Guidelines for Policy-Makers and Planners (p. 16-50)
According to the World Health Organization, “worldwide, more than five million people die each year as a result of some form of injury and many more remain disabled for life.” For this reason, “well-designed policy” to prevent such violence would be “invaluable.” This source describes how such policy could be created, delineating the major components of the institutional reform process and explaining the role of legislation and international agreements. This source also gives multiple “example situations,” highlighted in gray boxes. While this source describes the three major “phases” and many “sub-phases” of policy making, it is very important to remember that this is not always a fixed path. In many situations, depending on the unique circumstances of the particular country in question, these phases will overlap or occur in a different order. Nonetheless, this source should give a valuable overview of the general process.
Schopper, Doris, et al. “Developing Policies to Prevent Injuries and Violence: Guidelines for Policy-Makers and Planners.” World Health Organization. 2006. p. 16-50. Web. June 2014. <http://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/publications/39919_oms_br_2.pdf?ua=1>.
The Role of Judicial Reform in Development and Transitional Justice
According to a research brief published in 2009 by the International Center for Transitional Justice (ICTJ), transitional justice policies must be supported by “strong institutions” if they are to be successfully implemented and sustained. The development of “strong institutions” in post-conflict societies often entails “reforming or rebuilding the judicial system and its supporting services.” By identifying the “key elements” of an “effective and legitimate judiciary,” such as independence, accountability, representativeness, oversight, gender sensitivity, and access to justice, this brief clarifies what exactly is meant by the multifaceted term of “judicial reform.” There are many ties between transitional justice and judicial reform that exist at a minimum of “three levels.” According to the ICTJ, judicial reform can function as an actual measure of transitional justice itself, judicial reform may “facilitate” or even be a precondition for other transitional justice measures, or transitional justice may be conducive to efforts of judicial reform. While the link between judicial reform and transitional justice may be most obvious in criminal prosecutions or in the process of vetting, even truth commissions have the capacity to contribute to judicial reform by evaluating the role of the judicial system in human rights abuses of the past. The brief describes to transitional justice practitioners the observations that one should keep in mind to in order to “[maximize] mutual reinforcement.”
Ndulo, Muna B. and Roger Duthie. “The Role of Judicial Reform in Development and Transitional Justice.” International Center for Transitional Justice. July 2009. Web. June 2014. <https://ictj.org/sites/default/files/ICTJ-Development-JudicialReform-ResearchBrief-2009-English.pdf>.
DDR in Peace Operations: A Retrospective
Disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration, also known as DDR, are often linked to or even categorized as institutional reform. In addition to defining the components of “traditional” and “second generation” DDR which include disarmament, demobilization, reinsertion and integration, this source describes the role of micro-projects in DDR. The pilot pig farm launched in 2008 in Côte d’Ivoire is one of the first micro-projects run for ex-combatants and is now entering its reintegration phase. This source also describes community violence reduction programs in Haiti, enabling women running small businesses in areas of high crime to have the opportunity to participate in programs that enhance their “skills for marketing strategies, packaging, and quality control.” This reinforcement of small business has helped not only the women who own these businesses and their families, but has also created employment opportunities in neighborhoods of high crime and unemployment, two intricately related factors.
United Nations Department of Peacekeeping Operations. “DDR in Peace Operations: A Retrospective.” United Nations. Web. June 2014. <http://www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/documents/DDR_retrospective.pdf>.