The 8 Stages of Genocide
Gregory H. Stanton’s paper focuses on the eight original stages of genocide. First, he briefly discusses the definition, acts, and intent of genocide. Then, he discusses the stages toward genocide, which include “classification, symbolization, dehumanization, organization, polarization, preparation, extermination, and denial.” While reading this paper, it becomes evident that each of us as human beings, whether intentionally or unintentionally, complete the first and second stages of genocide. We achieve the first stage, classification, when referring to a certain group of people as “them” or “they” instead of “us” or “we.” Symbolization, the second stage, is an expansion on classification and occurs when “we name some people Hutu and others Tutsi, or Jewish or Gypsy, or Christian or Muslim.” As the stages progress, offenders begin to purposely execute the genocidal process. Stanton and Genocide Watch have since added two new stages of genocide: discrimination and persecution. Click here to read, “The Ten Stages of Genocide.”
Stanton, Gregory H. “The 8 Stages of Genocide.” 1996. Web. 7 July 2014. <http://www.genocidewatch.org/images/8StagesBriefingpaper.pdf>.
Prisons and Health (p. 16, 19-24)
Jens Modvig’s chapter in the 2014 “Prisons and Health” report focuses on violence and abuse in prisons. The pages selected from this report not only identify the challenges that prisoners endure in their daily lives, it also identifies what types of violence and torture they undergo. The source also includes many abuses that are not widely known such as re-feeding and insufficient health care. This piece provides several key statistics, and explains that prisoners withstand violence and torture from their guards, medical staff and one another. Modvig explains that “violence is difficult to address and assess precisely because it is surrounded by silence and, therefore, often underreported,” especially in prisons because offenders may not be fully held responsible which makes reporting abuse insignificant. Prison violence is a significant type of violence that needs to be identified and addressed.
Modvig, Jens. “Prisons and Health.” World Health Organization. 2014. p. 16, 19-24. Web. 7 July 2014. <http://cdn.basw.co.uk/upload/basw_45905-10.pdf>.
Child Soldiers Recall Learning Lessons of War Instead of the Classroom
Children are often used as soldiers in countries that include Sri Lanka, Democratic Republic of Congo, the Ivory Coast, Colombia, and Afghanistan. This article explains that it is easier to force a compliant child to fight as opposed to a morally developed adult. Jimmie Briggs, the author of “Innocents Lost: When Child Soldiers Go to War,” adds that children are “not scared by dangers” and are “prepared to do anything.” Child soldiers are usually abducted from their families and forced to fight because they have no choice, and if they rebel or make a mistake they are whipped, drugged, and sometimes even forced to kill their own families. Often, if the child soldiers return to their villages, they are no longer welcome and are seen as predators and murderers. In addition, if a child soldier returned from the army only to be met with poverty, hunger, and desolation, the army would seem like the better option.
Richardson, Jerika and Lara Setrakian. “Child Soldiers Recall Learning Lessons of War Instead of the Classroom.” ABC News. 7 December 2006. Web. 5 August 2014. <http://abcnews.go.com/International/LegalCenter/story?id=2706722&page=1&singlePage=true>.