Participation in Politics

Gender Differences In Leadership Styles And The Impact Within Corporate Boards

The diverse backgrounds of the authors of this paper help shape the paper into one with multiple perspectives, issues, situations, and solutions. This paper examines the positive contributions women have made to the economy and their existing untapped potential for economic growth. Women are the largest economic opportunity; they control the majority of consumer spending, improve corporate performance, and increase the next generation’s’ welfare. It also draws attention to the global and personal challenges women face in attaining higher education and leadership roles, such as gender bias and stereotypes, double standards, and low access to credit. The authors provide a fascinating insight into the science behind the decisions humans make, providing a background to the issue of varying reactions to situations by men and women. The paper presents three unvisited concepts (Heuristics and Biases, Risk Perception, and Prospect Theory) which help explain why men and women react differently to situations (for example, when confronted with uncertainty, women report fear while men report anger). This article is an interesting read as it analyzes the economic contributions women make and the barriers women face in obtaining economic success. It also makes the case for opening up more leadership positions for women.

Patel, Gita, and Sophie Buiting. “Gender Differences In Leadership Styles And The Impact Within Corporate Boards.” The Commonwealth Secretariat, Social Transformation Programmes Division, June 2013. Web. 12 July 2016. Pg. 1-25. <http://www.cpahq.org/cpahq/cpadocs/Genderdiffe.pdf>.

Beyond Hillary and Benazir: Women’s Political Leadership Worldwide

Historically, female national leaders have been rare, however, within the last two decades women’s involvement in politics has increased. They have made dramatic gains in electoral politics, winning a high number of seats in parliaments around the world. “…there are now record numbers of women in cabinets, 16 percent overall. Two countries have surpassed the 50 percent mark, Finland and Norway, and 22 countries have more than 30 percent female ministers. In addition, 28 women now serve as speakers of parliament, about half of these in Latin America and the Caribbean.”

This article thoroughly analyzes the development of women in politics, taking an objective look at women’s involvement in various political offices ranging from the executive level to the parliamentary level.  It also examines the reasons behind the increase of the political representation of women in some countries compared to others. The article ends with the exploration of recent trends in political representation of women.

Jalalzai, Farida, and Mona Lena Krook. “Beyond Hillary and Benazir: Women’s Political Leadership Worldwide.” International Political Science Review. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 July 2016. <http://ips.sagepub.com/content/31/1/5.full.pdf+html>.

Women and Leadership

This article, supported by a new Pew Research survey that looks at women and leadership, explains how double standards on women are their main barrier. According to four out of ten Americans, women have to do more than their male counterparts to prove themselves worthy of leadership positions in business and politics. The article also presents public attitudes about other aspects of gender and leadership, such as possession of certain skills/traits, the potential for women to be in the White House, and the benefits resulting from more women in leadership positions. The article ends with some other interesting findings from the survey such as women’s opinion on gender discrimination and the existence of gender stereotypes.

“Women and Leadership.” Pew Research Centers Social Demographic Trends Project RSS. N.p., 14 Jan. 2015. Web. 18 July 2016. <http://www.pewsocialtrends.org/2015/01/14/women-and-leadership>.

Impact of Women’s Participation and Leadership on Outcomes

This article is significant in that it discusses the potential women have in bringing about a difference as participants in decision-making and politics. The article presents the reality that often faces women who possess leadership/political positions. For example, the article mentions that when women run as candidates for political offices, they may not “champion gender concerns”/fight for more rights for women in their constituencies  so they can obtain more votes (they want to avoid “getting perceived by male voters as a threat to the interests of men). The article also provides proposed directions to expand the positive impact women in politics can have.

<http://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/egm/eql-men/docs/EP.7_rev.pdf>.

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