Implementing New Policies

Women and Peace and Security: Guidelines for National Implementation


Written in 2011, this article outlines the guidelines for worldwide governmental bodies to follow in order to maintain peace and security while creating gender equality. The author, Natalia Zakhavora, wrote these guidelines with the plans for them to be adapted by UN Women, so the article is written from a UN-focused perspective. The main claim of the article is that because the responsibility for implementing the women, peace, and security resolutions lies primarily with the United Nations Member States, as well as international and regional security organizations, an actual structure of plans should be created specifically for member states. The article does not only discuss governmental agencies’ implementation of gender equality efforts but extends the issues and solutions to the common person, therefore including all readers, in the discussion on gender equality. This article directly relates to the topic of “peace and security” because it reviews the advantages and disadvantages of National Action Plans (NAP) on women, peace, and security (WPS) and lists the phases of specifically developing a WPS NAP (11). The chart on page 23 addresses the different ways that government agencies should be held accountable for action plans regarding WPS, as well as the steps the UN Secretary General and UN Security Council must take to implement this action plans. All these aspects provide a clear link to the topic of peace and security because of how heavily they examine the effectiveness of policy implementation in order to achieve gender equality.


Zakharova, Natalia. Women and Peace and Security: Guidelines for National Implementation Guidelines for the (n.d.): n. pag. 2011. Web. 26 June 2016. <>.


IFAD Gender Equality and Women’s Empowerment Policy


The article discusses women’s empowerment and gender equality in conjunction with sustainable resources. It also emphasizes the importance of women’s empowerment in decreasing the amount of impoverished. Written in 2012 by the International Fund for Agricultural Development, this article specifically focuses on how women are “major players in the agricultural sector” and then goes on to state the disadvantages women, notably those in underprivileged communities, face when trying to stand up for themselves. There is a clear policy with objectives included, each objective of which is explained further as the article progresses. This article is related to peace and security because it explains proposed solutions to the problem of marginalized women in agricultural communities, such as promoting economic empowerment among rural women and creating an equitable balance of workloads among men and women, and discusses how these solutions can be sustained.

“IFAD Gender Equality and Women’s Empowerment Policy.” N.p., n.d. Web. 1 Aug. 2016. <>.


United States Global Strategy to Empower Adolescent Girls


This document, written in March 2016, discusses the gender equality policy implementation plans of four different U.S. agencies, thereby thoroughly covering many of the aspects that should be addressed when attempting to achieve parity, especially for adolescent girls. Pages 10 to 17 discuss the U.S. Department of State’s objectives for empowering adolescent girls, such as focusing on adolescent girls as direct beneficiaries and developing locally informed strategies. Pages 20 to 23 include the strategic objectives of the State Department’s plan, showing how the strategy’s goal of empowering adolescent girls will be achieved. For example, one objective listed is “addressing child, early, and forced marriage and mitigating its consequences for adolescent girls.”  As the document progresses, it changes from the State Department’s objectives to USAID’s planning. Specifically, on page 43, there is a detailed description of USAID online staff training for empowerment of adolescent girls. Additionally, from pages 54 to 55, the U.S. Peace Corps details activities that will be implemented such as “Let Girls Learn-Aligned” and training for staff.  The document finishes off with the Millennium Challenge Corporation’s implementation plan, which includes the objectives of improving human capital and increasing economic opportunity in developing countries. This strategic plan document, with its inclusion of several different agencies, demonstrates that to achieve gender equality across the globe, the efforts of a multitude of entities are needed.


GLOBAL STRATEGY TO EMPOWER ADOLESCENT GIRLS President Barack Obama Greets Linet Momposhi Nenkoitol, 16, at the Young African Leaders Initiative (YALI) Regional Leadership Center at (n.d.): n. pag.U.S. State Government. Mar. 2016. Web. 17 July 2016. <>.


The Other Side of Peacekeeping: Peace Enforcement and Who Should Do It?


Written in 2002 by George F. Oliver, this article provides context for peacekeeping operations in the UN system and defines jargon used in the operations, such as enforcement, along with providing a new model for peacekeeping. This article, as part of a book about international peacekeeping, points out some missteps by the UN in the peacekeeping arena. This article is relevant to the topic of peace and security because it breaks down the different aspects of peacekeeping, such as peace enforcement, into accessible language and allows for a broader perspective to be taken on the operations, as opposed to focusing in one individual countries or locations. Specifically, on page 101,  the article explains how the meaning of peace enforcement is often misunderstood (it is often mistaken with “peacekeeping” which takes place with the consent of all parties, while peace enforcement does not) which is and how it actually refers to military committees using force to establish and maintain policies (101). Such information is useful when trying to understand how large agencies, such as the UN, work to implement peace and security policies worldwide.


Oliver, George F. The Other Side of Peacekeeping: Peace Enforcement and Who Should Do It? 8 (2002): n. pag. International Peacekeeping. 2002. Web. 11 July 2016. <>.


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