Violence: Youth Gangs & Military Recruitment

Aggressive Youth Cultures and Hate Crime: Skinheads and Xenophobic Youth in Germany, Pgs. 602-604

Youth can play a major role in promoting violent and racial acts and ideologies, such as xenophobia. In Germany, the perpetrators of violence driven by hate or bias have often been groups of young men. According to this report, in 1996, “more than two thirds of all perpetrators were 20 years of age or younger.” These actions that support a xenophobic culture have resulted in violent measures, which have most frequently taken place spontaneously. This paper was published in 2001. To read a more recent update on the presence of youth violence in Germany, visit

Watts, Meredith W. “Aggressive Youth Cultures and Hate Crime: Skinheads and Xenophobic Youth in Germany.” American Behavioral Scientist. Vol. 45, No. 4. December 2001. Pgs. 602-604. Web. 16 October 2015. <>.


The struggle for Kenya’s marginalised youth

Young people in Kenya are facing poverty, excluding policies, scarce opportunities and continuous exposure to violence. Approximately 59 percent of young adults are unemployed. As a result, young Kenyan men are being easily recruited to join al-Shabab’s militant group, “Kenya Mujahideen.” These young people are in search of opportunities to receive a steady income, which leads many of them to join militant organizations in order to circumvent the lack of income and brutal working conditions in their country. Due to an unstable economy and corruption, Kenyan youth are exposed to higher risk situations, and many have started to rely on violence and force in order to address these growing issues.

Swanson, Will. “The struggle for Kenya’s marginalised youth.” Al Jazeera English. 30 July 2014. Web. 16 October 2015. <>.


Have Bullets Killed the Future of Venezuela´s Youth?

According to UNICEF, “The leading cause of death for young men between the ages of 10 and 19 in Venezuela is homicide,” and according to other reports, “More than 90 children have been murdered in the capital city, Caracas, since the beginning of the year.” Venezuelan security forces have been responsible for several of these deaths, with 126 out of 912 murders in 2014 alone having been committed by national officers. Seeking freedom, a new life and better opportunities, Venezuelan youth are trying to flee from a country that has subjected them to oppression. Nevertheless, those aspiring to make a change have stayed in Venezuela in an attempt to affect government policies. However, many have been forced into prison and labeled as criminals. This source explains the violence and oppression experienced by Venezuelan youth and describes its lasting impact.

Gomez Barrueta, Douglas. “Have Bullets Killed the Future of Venezuela´s Youth?” Global Voices. 21 May 2015. Web. 16 October 2015. <>.


Youth as a Force for Peace

In South Philadelphia High School, 30 students of Asian descent were attacked during school by their own classmates, many of who were African-American. Upon realizing that the educators and administrators at their school were unwilling to take any actions in order to stop the violence, the victims decided to organize a boycott against their school. This student attempt to overcome racial inequality resulted in a verdict from the Department of Justice, which highlighted the importance of creating a more conducive and safe learning environment for all students. Their boycott brought national attention to the racial segregation in South Philadelphia High School and to the role youth can play in alleviating racial discrimination and creating a more peaceful and inclusive education system.

Thompson, Matt. “Youth as a Force for Peace.” The Atlantic. 29 June 2015. Web. 16 October 2015. <>.

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